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2014年考研英语真题资料

时间: 2014-10-17 作者:医学考研网 点击:

    Directions:

  Read the following text .Choose the word(s) for each numberedblank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET .(10 points)

  As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice thattheir memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be .Wesuddenly can't remember ___we put the keys just a moment ago ,or anold acquaintance's name, or the name of an old band we used to love.As the brain ___,we refer to these occurrences an "seniormoments." ___ seemingly innocent , this loss of mental focus canpotentially have a(n) ___impact on our professional, social , andpersonal___.

  Neuroscientists ,experts who study the nervous system ,areincreasingly showing that there's actually a lot that can be done.It ___out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way ourmuscles do ,and the right mental ___can significantly improve ourbasic cognitive ___.Thinking is ___essentially a ___of makingconnections in the brain .To a certain extent ,our ability to ___inmarking the connections that drive intelligence is inherited .ability to ___in making the connections are made through effort andpractice ,___,because these connections are made through effort andpractice , scientists believe that intelligence can expand andfluctuate ___ mental effort .

  Now , a new Web-based company has taken it a step ___anddeveloped the first " brain training program " designed to actuallyhelp people improve and regain their mental ___.

  The Web-based program ___ you to systematically improve yourmemory and attention skills . The program keeps ___of your progressand provides detailed feedback ___ your performance and improvement.Most importantly, it ___modifies and enhances the games you playto ___ on the strengths you are developing - much like a(n) ___exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary yourmuscle use .

  1.[A]where [B]when [C]that [D]why

  2. [A]improves [B]fades [C]recovers [D]collapses

  3. [A]If [B]Unless [C]Once [D]While

  4. [A]uneven [B]limited [C]damaging [D]obsucure

  5. [A]wellbeing [B]envirenment [C]relationahip [D]outlook

  6. [A]turns [B]finds [C]points [D]figures

  7. [A]roundabouts [B]responses [C]workouts [D]associations

  8. [A]genre [B]functions [C]cicumstances [D]criterion

  9. [A]channel [B]condition [C]sequence [D]process

  10. [A]persist [B]believe [C]excel [D]feature

  11. [A]Therefore [B]Moreover [C]Otherwise [D]However

  12. [A]according to [B]regardless of [C]apart from [D]insteadof

  13. [A]back [B]further [C]aside [D]around

  14. [A]sharpness [B]stability [C]framework [D]flexibility

  15. [A]forces [B]reminds [C]hurries [D]allows

  16. [A]hold [B]track [C]order [D]pace

  17. [A]to [B]with [C]for [D]on

  18. [A]irregularly [B]habitually [C]constantly [D]unusually

  19. [A]carry [B]put [C]build [D]take

  20. [A]risky [B]effective [C]idle [D]familiar) F)

  Section 2 ReadingComprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below eachtext by choosing A,B,CorD.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40points)

  Text 1

  In order to "change lives for the better" and reduce"dependency."GeorgeOsbome,Chancellor of the Exchequer,inroduced the"upfront work search" sebeme. Only if the jobless arrive at thejobcentre with a CV. register for online job search, and startlooking for work will they be eligible for benefit - and then theyshould report weekly rather than fortnightly. What could be morereasonable?

  More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be aseven-day wait for the jobseeker's allowance. "There first few daysshould be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on." he4claimed, "We're doing these things because we know they help peoplestay off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster."Help? Rellay? On first hearing, this was the socially concernedchancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with"reforms" to an obviously indulgent system that demands too littleeffort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsidiseslaziness. What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zealfor "fundamental fairness" - protecting the taxpayer, controllingspending and ensuring that only the most descring claimantsreceived their benefits.

  Losing a job is hurting: you don't skip down to the jobcenterwith a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doublingyour income from the generous state. It is financially terrifying,psychologically embarrassing and you know that suport is minimaland extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you arenow excluded from the work environment that offers purpose andstructure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourselfand your family and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newlyunemployed what they want and the answer is always : a job.

  But in Osbomeland, your first instinct is to fall into depency -permanent dependency if you can get it - supported by a state onlytoo ready to indulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years oferer-thougher reforms of the job search and benefit administrationsystem never happend. The principle of British welfare is no longerthat you cna insure yourself against the risk of unemployment andreceive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. Even thevery phrase "jobseeker's allowance" is about redefining rheunemployed as a "jobseeker" who had no fundamental right to abenefit he or she has earned through making national insurancecontributions. Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited"allowance," conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlementand no insurance, at $71.70 a week, one of the least generous inthe EU.

  21. George Osborue's scheme was intended to

  [A]provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.

  [B]encourage jobseekers active engagement in job seeking.

  [C]motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.

  [D]guarantee jobseekers legitimate right to benefits.

  22. The phrase "to sign on "most probably means

  [A] to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre.

  [B]to accept the government's restriction on the allowance.

  [C]to register for an allowance form the government.

  [D]to attend a government job-training program.

  23. What prompted the chancellor to develop his scheme?

  [A]A desire to secure a better life for all

  [B]An eagerness to protect the unemployed.

  [C] An urge to be generous to the claimants.

  [D]A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.

  24.According to Paragraph 3,being unemployed makes one feel

  [A]uneasy

  [B]enraged

  [C]insulted

  [D]guilty

  25.To which of the following would the author most probablyagree?

  [A]The British welfare system indulges jobseekers laziness.

  [B]Osborne's reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.

  [C]The jobseekers' allowance has met their actual needs.

  [D]Unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.

  Text2

  All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than themembers of any other profession -with the possible exception ofjournalism. But there are few places where clients have moregrounds for complaint than America.

  During the decade before the economic crisis spending on legalservices in America grew twice as inflation. The best lawyers madeskyscrapers-full of money,tempting ever more students to pile intolaw schools.But most law graduates never get a big -firm job. Manyof them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer thatmakes the tort system a costlt nightmare.

  There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of alegal education.There is just one path for a lawer in most Americanstates a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject,then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools authorizedby the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation forthe bar exam. This leaves today's average law-school graduate with$1000,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debtmeans that they have to work fearsomely hard.

  Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers.Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but thestate-level bodies that govern the profession have been tooconservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people tostudy law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let studentssit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar examis truly a stem enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who cansit it earlier should be allowed to do so. Students who do not needthe extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third.

  The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictiveguild-like ownership syucture of the business. Except in theDistrict of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a lawfirm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressurefor change from within the profession, but opponents of changeamong the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a lawfirm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather thanserve clients ethically.

  In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms wouldreduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging lawfirms to use technology and improve services to customers, byencouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professionalmanagers to focus on improving firms' efficiency.

  After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, havestarted liberalizing there legal professions. America shouldfollow.

  26. A lot of students take up law as their profession dueto

  [A] the growing demand from clients.

  [B] the increasing pressure of inflation.

  [C] the prospect of working in big firms.

  [D] the attraction of financial rewards.

  27. Which of the following adds to the costs of legal educationin most American states?

  [A] Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.

  [B] Admissions approval from the bar association.

  [C] Pursuing a bachelor's degree in another major.

  [D] Receiving training by professional associations.

  28. Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originatesfrom

  [A] lawyers' and clients' strong resistance.

  [B] the rigid bodies governing the profession.

  [C] the stern exam for would-be lawyers.

  [D] non-professionals' sharp criticism.

  29. The guild-like ownership structure is considered"restrictive" partly because it

  [A] bans outsiders' involvement in the profession.

  [B] keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares.

  [C] aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.

  [D] prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.

  30. In this text, the author mainly discusses

  [A] flawed ownership of America's law firms and causes.

  [B] the factors that help make a successful lawyer inAmerican.

  [C] a problem in America's legal profession and solutions toit.

  [D] the role of undergraduate studies in America's legaleducation.2 @7Q# n# U9 [& z `

  Text 3

  The USS3-millon Fundamental Physics Prize is indeed aninteresting experiment as Alexander Polyakov said when he acceptedthis year's award in Mach And it is far from the only one oflucrative awards for researchers have joined the Nobel Prizes inrecent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize are fundedfrom the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of internetentrepreneurs. These benefactors have succeeded in their chosenfields, they say, and they want to use their wealth to drawattention to those who have succeeded in science.

  What's not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful ofscientists quoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as theold saying goes, and these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy theirprizes the prestige of the Nobels. The new awards are an exercisein self-promotion for those behind them, say scientists. They coulddistort the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They do not fundpeer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lonegenius.

  The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism.Some want to shock, others to draw people into science, or tobetter reward those who have made their careers in research.

  As Nature has pointed before, there are some legitimate concernsabout how science prizes - both new and old - are distributed. Thebreakthrough prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes anunrepresentative view of what the life sciences include. But theNobel Foundation's limit of limit of three recipients per prize,each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by thecollaborative nature of modern research - as will be demonstratedby the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes toacknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, ofcourse, themselves set up by a very rich individual who had decidedwhat he wanted to do with his own money. Time, rather thanintention, has given them legitimacy.

  As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, twothings seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such aprize if they were offered one. Second, it is surely a good thingthat the money and attention come to science rather than goelsewhere. It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism -that is the culture of research, after all - but it is theprize-givers' money to do with as they please. It is wise to takesuch gifts with gratitude and grace.

  31.The Fundamental physics Prize is seen as

  [A] a symbol of the entrepreneurs' wealth

  [B] a possible replacement of the Nobel Prizes

  [C] an example of bankers' investments

  [D] a handsome reward for researchers

  32.The critics think that the new awards will most benefit

  [A]the profit-oriented scientists

  [B]the founders of the new awards

  [C]the achievement-based system

  [D]peer-review-led research

  33.The discovery of the Higgs boson is a typical case whichinvolves

  [A]contreversies over the recipients' status

  [B]the joint effort of modern researchers

  [C]legitimate concerns over the new prizes

  [D]the demonstration of research findings

  34.According to Paragraph4, which of the following is true of theNobels?

  [A]Their endurance has done justice to them

  [B]Their legitimacy has long been in dispute

  [C]They are the most representative honor

  [D]History has never cast doubt on them

  35.the author believes that the now awards are

  [A]acceptable despite the criticism

  [B]harmful to the culture of research

  [C]subject to undesirable changes

  [D]unworthy of public attention

  Text 4

  "The Heart of the Matter, "the just-released report by theAmerican Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise foraffirming the importance of the humanities and social sciences tothe prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America.Regrettably, however, the report's failure to address the truenature of the critics facing liberal education may cause more harmthan good.

  In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sentliners to the AAAS asking that it identify actions that could betaken by"federal, atste and local"to "maintain national excellencein humanities and social scientific scholarship and education."Inresponse, the American Academy formed the Commission on theHumanities and Social Sciences. Among the commission's 51membersare top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, andbusiness executives. As well ad prominent figures from diplomacy,filmmaking, music and journalism.

  The goals identified in the report are generally admirable.Because representative government representative governmentpresupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports fullliteracy, stresses the study of history and government,particularly American history and American government; andencourages the use of new digital technologies. To encourageinnovation and competition, the report calls fornicated investmentin research, the crafting of coherent curricula that improvestudents' ability to solve problems and communicate effectively inthe 21st century, increased funding for teachers and theencouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on thegreat challengers of the day. The report also advocates greaterstudy of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansionof study abroad programs.

  Unfortunately, despite 2% years in the making," The heart of theMatter" never gets to the heart of the matter, the illiberal natureof library education at our leading colleges and universities. Thecommission ignores that for several decades America's colleges anduniversities have produced graduates who don't know the content andcharacter of liberal education and are thus deprived of itsbenefits.Sadly,the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus hasbeen replaced by the use of humanities and social sciences anvehicles for publicizing "progressive, "or left-liberalpropaganda.

  Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretationof history and progressive public policy as the proper subject ofstudy while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas-suchas free markets and self-reliance-as falling outside the boundariesof routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectualinvestigation.

  The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet itsreport may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadthof the challenge that Congress asked it to illuminate.

  36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author's attitudetoward the AAAS's report?

  [A] Critical

  [B] Appreciative.

  [C] Contemptuous.

  [D] Tolerant.

  37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAASreport on how to

  [A] retain people's interest in liberal education.

  [B] define the government's role in education.

  [C] keep a leading position in liberal education.

  [D] safeguard individuals' rights to education.

  38. According to Paragraph 3, the report suggest

  [A] an exclusive study of American history.

  [B] a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects.

  [C] the application of emerging technologies.

  [D] funding for the study of foreign languages.

  40. Which of the following would would be the best title fortext?

  [A] Ways to Grasp "The Heart of the Matter"

  [B] Illiberal Education and "The Heart of the Matter"

  [C] The AAAS's Contribution to Liberal Education

  [D] Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education

  Part B

  Directions

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. Forquestions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphsinto a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and fillingthem into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs A and E have beencorrectly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10points)

  [A] Some archaeological sites have always been easilyobservable-for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece; thepyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge insouthern England. But these sites are exceptions to the norm. Mostarchaeological sites have been located by means of carefulsearching, while many others have been discovered by accident.Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by abutterfly hunter who literally fell into its deep valley in1911.Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the diggingof the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.

  [B] In another case, American archaeologists Rene Million andGeorge Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire cityof Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico near what is now MexicoCity. At its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largesthuman settlements in the world. The researchers mapped not only thecity 's vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds ofsimpler apartment complexes where common people lived.

  [C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they arelooking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of theground? Typically, they survey and sample(make test excavationson)large areas of terrain to determine where excavation will yielduseful information. Surveys and test samples have also becomeimportant for understanding the larger landscapes that containarchaeological sites.

  [D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entirelandscapes. In one case, many researchers working around theancient Maya city of Copan, Honduras, have located hundreds ofsmall rural villages and individual dwellings by using aerialphotographs and by making surveys on foot. the resulting settlementmaps show how the distribution and density of the rural populationaround the city changed dramatically between AD 500 and 850,whenCopan collapsed.

  [E] Te find their sites ,archaeologists today rely heavily onsystematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology toolsand techniques ,Airborne technologies ,such as different types ofradar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the groundwithout digging , Aerial surveys locate general areas of interestor larger buried features, such an ancient buildings orfields.

  [F] Most archaeological sites , however , are discovered byarchaeologists who have set out to look for them .Such searches cantake years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tombof the Egyptian pharaohTutankhamunexisted from information found inother sites . Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of theKing for seven years before be located the tomb in 1922 .In thelate 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans combed antiquedealers' stores in Athens ,Greece He was searching for tinyengraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture thatdominated Greece from the 1400s to 1200s BC .Evans'sinterpretations of these engravings eventually led him to find theMinoan palace at Knossos (Knosos), on the island of Crete , in1900.

  [G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the placeswhere digs will be successful .Most ground surveys involve a lot ofwalking , looking for surface clues such as small fragments ofpottery ,They often include a certain amount of digging to test forburied materials at selected points across a landscape.Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using suchtechnologies as ground radar ,magnetic-field recording ,and metaldetectors .Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites andthe landscapes around sites .Two and three-dimensional maps arehelpful tools in planning excavations , illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research.

  PART C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and them translate theunderlined segments into Chinese .Your translation should bewritten neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Music means different things to different people and sometimeseven different things to the same person at different moments ofhis life. It might be poetic, philosophical, sensual, ormathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have somethingto do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical;but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical:sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence ofmetaphysical message through physical means that is the strength ofmusic. (46)It is also the reason why when we try to describe musicwith words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, andnot grasp music itself.

  Beethoven's importance in music has been principally defined bythe revolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music fromhitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. SometimesI feel in his late works a will to break all signs of continuity.The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the lastpiano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained bythe weight of convention. (47)By all accounts he was a freethinkingperson, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essentialquality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of hisworks.

  This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for theperformers of Beethoven's music. His compositions demand theperformer to show courage, for example in the use of dynamics.(48)Beethoven's habit of increasing the volume with an intensecrescendo and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passagewas only rarely used by composers before him.

  Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of theword. He was not interested in daily politics, but concerned withquestions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right andwrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especially significant washis view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rightsand responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom ofthought and of personal expression.

  Beethoven's music tends to move from chaos to order as if orderwere an imperative of human existence. For him, order does notresult from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague ourexistence; order is a necessary development, an improvement thatmay lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not bychance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of theEroica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not havethe last word. (50)One could interpret much of the work ofBeethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courageto fight it renders life worth living.7 R2q. C" e9 J

  , j)F4 V) ` o* s

  Section 3Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  Write a letter of about 100 words to the president of youruniversity, suggesting how to improve students' physicalcondition.

  You should include the details you think necessary.

  You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming"instead.

  Do not write the address. (10 points)

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing.In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) interpret its intended meaning, and

  3) give your comments.

  You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET(20 points)

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